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Human Development (Multiple Choices)

1.        Puberty is controlled by a complex feedback loop involving ____.
a. the thalamus, hypothalamus, and reticular formation                                                                                          b. the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads, and hormones                                                                                           c. the frontal lobe, the hypothalamus, the amygdala, and the brainstem                                                                       d. the cerebral cortex, the gonads, the cerebellum, and the angular gyrus
2.                  Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):
a. always has visible symptoms
b. are rarely problematic over long run for the one who caught one
c. can always be treated with antibiotics.
d. are contracted by millions of young adults in the United States every year
3.         American adolescents are growing taller than their parents.
a. True
b. False
4.         College development in college is:
a. only a result of being exposed to the right materials.                                                                                                     b. less involved than the development that occurs for people who do not go to college.                                       c. fostered by being exposed to others with different views from oneself.                                                                       d. a matter of changing from relativistic to dualist thinking.
5.         In which area are adolescents most likely to be influenced by their peers, as opposed to their parents?
a. career goals
b. moral principles
c. educational plans
d. fashion
6.         More than _____ students between the ages of 18 and 24 are accidentally injured each year while under the influence, are assaulted by other students who have been drinking, or are raped by college men who have been drinking.
one thousand
ten thousand
c. fifty thousand
d. one million
7.         Girls are fertile immediately after their first menstrual period.
a. True
b. False
8.         Jealousy can lessen feelings of affection and heighten feelings of insecurity and depression, leading to a breakup.
a. True
b. False
9.     Reciprocity in relationships:
a. is unimportant for determining longevity of relationships.
b.  involves a two-way giving of admiration and compliments
c. shows weakness in a couple’s relationship.
d. occurs when one partner is comfortable being a “giver” and the other is comfortable being a receiver.”
10.       Sleep disorders in late adulthood:
a. are less common than in early adulthood.
b. may signal physical or psychological problems.
c. cannot be treated with medication.
d. protect older adults from heart disease and strokes.
11.       The fastest growing segment of the American population is aged:
a. 0-3 years
b.15-20 years
c. 25-30 years
d. 65 years and above
12.       How does reaction time change as people get older?
a. it increases with age.
b. it becomes a component of crystallized intelligence
c. it is significantly longer during middle adulthood than early adulthood.
d. becomes a component of applied intelligence
13.                   In the fantasy stage of Super’s career development theory:
one’s final career is most often chosen.
interest and values are considered as most critical reasons for a match with  career choice.
glamour of the career has little to do with its being chosen.
one’s abilities and chosen career often do not match.
14.       American culture tends to deny the existence of death. Which of the following is an example of how it does that, according to Kübler-Ross (1969)?
a. People tend to use the word “died” instead of more comfortable terms to refer to a person who has died.
b. How the dead bodies are prepared for viewings.
c. Children are usually encouraged to attend funerals and family events surrounding a death.
d. Medicine encourages physicians to accept death as a part of their job, and to view it with acceptance rather than resistance.
15.       Chronologically, middle age occurs:
a. later today than in the past
b. between 30 and 65
c. after one gets married
d. between 30 and 50
16.       During early adulthood:
memory begins to decline rapidly.
memory improves while verbal skills decline.
verbal skills and general knowledge typically improve, while memory may decline gradually.
all cognitive skills decline.
17.       Employers should:
a. avoid hiring middle-aged workers                                                                                                                                           b. understand that middle-aged workers know more and have verbal skills as good as younger adults.       c. are more limited in their ultimate potential in a career.                                                                                               d. recognizes that middle-aged workers will have more need for missed work days than younger-adults.
18.        Girls who mature early have higher self- esteem than those who mature late.
a. True
b. False
19.       Whole brain death:
a. occurs when the cerebral cortex has no EEG reading.
b. may involve lower brain activity, but no cortical activity.
c. involves an absence of breathing and circulation without life-support machinery.
d. is the definition most frequently used in legal cases where a person’s status is in question
20.       Research on personality characteristics in middle adulthood found that:
a. those who were generative were emotionally unstable                                                                                            b. those who were stagnated were more conscientious                                                                                                      c. there is a relationship between those who were stagnated and neuroticism, but the exact nature of that relationship is unclear                                                                                                                                                               d. those who were generative were less extroverted that those who were not
21.       Theories of development during middle adulthood:
a. debate whether or not middle adulthood is a distinct event.
b. all include the concept of a midlife crisis.
c. agree that middle adulthood begins at age 35.
d. all suggest that one’s age is the primary determinant of when middle adulthood begins
22.       Psychological characteristics that are risk factors for heart disease include:
family history
job strain
high serum cholesterol.
23.       Which person first referred to adolescence as a time of “storm and stress”?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. G. Stanley Hall
c. Erik Erikson
d. Jean Piaget
24.         All aspects of cognitive skills generally decline in late adulthood.
a. True
b. False
25.       In later adulthood, people have the most difficulty remembering key life events from their teens and early adulthood.
a. True
b. False
26.       Ego integrity is the sense that people feel better about themselves because they are better than other people.
a. True
b. False
27.         Disengagement theory says that when older adults disengage from society and society disengages from them, they will be dissatisfied with life.
a. True
b. False
28.         Middle-aged workers:
a. are less satisfied than they were as young adults.
b. have more expertise and realistic career goals, which may be linked to higher job satisfaction.
c. are less realistic about their careers than they were when they were younger.
d. are less happy since they realize they have not attained their lifelong dreams
29.         Levinson and colleagues’ theory called “seasons of life”:
a. indicated that men had more social constraints affecting them.
b. have virtually identical  timing for men and women.
c. may be less applicable to today’s women than previously
d. found that people in their later 30s and early 40s were often looking to make significant changes in their lives, including new jobs, families and homes.
30.       Which of the following is true regarding physical development during middle adulthood?
a. it is at its peak
b. it declines gradually for most people who exercise and eat well
c. accident rates are at their peak
d. physical decline occurs rapidly regardless of exercise and diet
31.       Which of the following is not one of the stressful events that those in middle adulthood are more likely to encounter?
a. The death of a parent
b. Hospitalization
c. Divorce or marital separation
d. The beginning of their first career-oriented job
32.       All middle-aged adults experience the same level of cognitive changes.
a. True
b. False
33.       Osteoporosis:
a. affects few older adults; it is primarily a problem experienced during early adulthood
b. is unrelated to mortality rates
c. is a result of severe calcium loss from bones
d. a disorder that only affects women
34.       An intrinsic motive for working is:
a. to earn money
b. for insurance
c. to ensure future security
d. to fill days with meaningful activity
35.       According to Erikson, the primary task for adolescents is to develop:
a. industry
b. ego identity
c. trust
d. intimacy
36.       Kübler-Ross’s (1969) stages of death include all of the following except:
a. denial
b. absence
c. bargaining
d. depression
37.       At what age do most homosexual persons “come out” to others?
a. 18
b. 8
c. 13
d. 21
38.                   Older adults may be screened and treated less for cancer than younger adults in part because of elder bias.
a. True
b. False
39.       Untreated depression in older adults:
a. is okay, since it rarely works to treat their depression.
b. is not recommended since it is important that older adults work through their sadness.
c. may lead to suicide, particularly in older men.
d. will probably lead to chronic physical illnesses, including Alzheimer’s disease
40.                   _____ refers to the fact that people’s intellectual abilities are not absolutely fixed but can be modified under certain conditions at almost any time in life.
a. plasticity                                                                                                                                                                               b. Interindividual identity                                                                                                                                                     c. Multidirectionality                                                                                                                                                                 d. Interindividual variability
41.       According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory, stagnation occurs when:
a. people reject their natural drive to have children                                                                                                         b. people no longer increase in salary upgrades as they get older                                                                                  c. adult children move out of their parent’s house                                                                                                               d. a loss of drive to continue advancing in one’s career
42.       Separation of young adults from the family home:
a. occurs at different times and in different circumstances for many                                                                                       b. should always occur by 18 years of age.                                                                                                                         c. is more stressful when the home of origin includes only one parent.                                                                              d. is usually damaging to the parent-child relationship
43.       According to Butler (2002), reminiscence is:
a. a sign of dementia                                                                                                                                                             b. a negative reaction to aging                                                                                                                                            c. uniform in its quality among different individuals                                                                                                        d. a way to make life meaningful
44.       Which of the following statements is an example of “denial”, according to Kübler-Ross (1969)?
a. The diagnosis must be wrong.                                                                                                                                       b. Why is God punishing me?                                                                                                                                                  c. I promise to be good if this illness goes away.                                                                                                                         d. I understand that I am going to die and I am going to prepare for it.
45.       U. S. adolescent males are more concerned about occupational choices than U. S. adolescent females are?
a. True
b. False
46.       How does your author explain the fact that those who cohabit before marriage are more likely to get divorced after marriage?
a. cohabitation weakens marital bonds                                                                                                                              b. Cohabitors may be less committed to marriage because of their nontraditional views                                          c. Cohabitors are less educated than those who get married without cohabiting and thus they are less committed to marriage                                                                                                                                                                        d.none of these; cohabitors are not more likely to get divorced than those who do not cohabit before marriage
47.                   “Lifespan” refers to:
a. how long a person will live on average
b. the longest a person could expect to live under the best circumstances
c. how long a person lives under normal circumstances
d. the median age a person will live in a given population at a given time
48.                   Successful retirement:
a. requires mandatory retirement ages.
b. involves financial security.
c. is rare in today’s society.
d. usually occurs even if one is “forced out” of their job.
49.                   Attractiveness is:
a. determined purely by physicality.                                                                                                                                       b. unaffected by the sound of one’s voice.                                                                                                                                 c. determined in part by psychological characteristics.                                                                                                d. often determined by the pheromones that one emits.
50.                   Evidence suggests that one in four women in the U.S. will be raped during her lifetime.
a. True
b. False
51.                   Many people remain lonely because they fear being rejected by others.
a. True
b. False
52.                   The effects of Alzheimer’s disease range from forgetting recent events to significant confusion to death.
a. True
b. False
53.                   Why might children from poorer, non-industrialized countries still be growing taller while those in industrialized countries are not?
a. nutrition in industrialized countries is getting poorer                                                                                              b. medical care in industrialized countries has not yet prompted a growth trend.                                                 c. nutrition continues to improve in non-industrialized countries                                                                             d. technology is allowing for decreases in neonatal illnesses and deaths in non- industrialized countries
54.       It is normal for male adolescents to think of themselves as action heroes and to act as though they are made of steel?
a. True
b. False
55.       Which of the following is not an example of a carcinogen?
a. Chemicals in tobacco
b. viruses
c. ultraviolet radiation
d. metastasis
56.       When a person experiences self-acceptance as a member of their ethnic group, they are in which stage of the development of ethnic identity?
a. ethnic identity search
b. ethnic identity diffusion
c. unexamined ethnic identity
d. achieved ethnic identity
57.       Living together, or being POSSLQs:
a. is considered a sin by most people today in the U.S.                                                                                                  b. is accepted in American society more today than ever.                                                                                           c. has increased 10-fold since the 1960s in the U.S.                                                                                                      d. requires a legally binding contract that is prepared by an attorney
58.       Havighurst’s (1972) model of normalcy in middle adulthood leaves no room for:
a. gays and lesbians
b. people who do not adhere to organized rebellion
c.         the unemployed
d. those who are physically handicapped
59.       Substance abuse is the leading cause of death among male adolescents in the United States.
a. True
b. False
60.       People in college are often at the realistic choice stage of occupational development.
a. True
b. False
61.       Hospice care:
a. takes control over someone’s situation so he/she won’t have to make any decisions.
b. focuses on curing the patient of his/her illness.
c. only works with the dying patient.
d. provides medication to relieve pain and other services to help the patient and his/her family.
62.       Erickson and theorized four forms of identity formation: Identity diffusion, Foreclosure, Moratorium and Identity achievement.
a. True
b. False
63.                 Ageism would be most accurately defined as :
a. the process of aging
b. the respect people shoe for older adults
c. prejudice against people because of their age
d. decline in our reproductive capacity
64.       During middle adulthood, cognitive development involves:
a. some drop in processing speed and lapses in memory.                                                                                                    b. a sharp decline in working memory capacity.                                                                                                                    c. is better than it has ever been for those in developed nations.                                                                                                 d. is best for all people who live in the United States today.
65.       Havighurst’s (1972) model of developmental tasks during middle adulthood:
a. is based in the television series “Father knows Best”                                                                                                       b. encompasses the lives of diverse individuals                                                                                                                      c. has no relevance to modern life                                                                                                                                       d. describes tasks that are relevant to some, but not all adults
66.       Losing one’s spouse:
a.  is associated with decreased physical and mental health.
b. has little effect on older adults since they expected their partners to die.
c. typically increases the social interaction of the surviving spouse.
d. usually leads to an increase in social activities.
67.       According to Levinson’s “seasons of life” theory, during middle adulthood:
a. people are likely to experience a midlife crisis                                                                                                                  b. people look back at their youth more often than looking ahead to their death                                                          c. people will experience great happiness when they realize that they are approaching the end of their work years.                                                                                                                                                                                    d. menopause is seen as a positive event
68.       Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development states that the conflict during late adulthood is:
a. intimacy vs. isolation
b. identity vs. identity confusion
c.         c. ego integrity vs. despair
d. generativity vs. stagnation
69.       Of those who receive hospice care, the most common location for their death is:
a. in a private residence
b. in a hospital
c. in a nursing home
d. in a hospice inpatient facility
70.       Which of the following is NOT one of the four areas of psychological problems that suicidal adolescents experience?
a. confusion about the self
b. impulsiveness
c. interpersonal problems
d. financial difficulties
71.       Suicide is the leading cause of death among U. S. adolescents.
a. True
b. False
72.       No two people age in the same way or at the same rate. This is called interindividual variability.
a. True
b. False
73.       At what age are women who become pregnant first advised to check for chromosomal abnormalities in their fetus?
a. 35 years of age
b. 40 years of age
c. 45 years of age
d. 50 years of age
74.       Older Americans report being much less happy than younger adults.
a. True
b. False
75.       Which of the following is recommended to those who are supporting a dying person?
a. Don’t talk about the impending death.
b. Don’t touch the person too much.
c. Don’t talk about your own problems
d. Don’t minimize the person’s pain or need to grieve.
76.       Adaptive thermogenesis is:
a. The rate of those 18- to 24-years of ages who are overweight or obese adulthood.
b. A cluster of symptoms that results from sudden decrease in the use of a drug.
c. One reason why those who are overweight or obese may have difficulty losing weight.
d. The need to take more of a drug to achieve same effect.
77.       Gina and David are both 12 years old. Given what we know about adolescent height and weight growth spurts, which would you, expect to find?
a. David is taller than Gina
b. Gina is taller than David
c. David weighs more than Gina
d. both would be same height and weight as neitherhas enteredinto growth spurts.
78.       According to Peck (1968), ego transcendence:
a. comes when people realize they are going to decline physically.
b. involves helping future generations and leaving a legacy of oneself.
c. is the same thing as self-love.
d. is a result of embracing one’s career and recognizing that retirement is just an   acceptance that one has nothing more to contribute to the world.
79.       In older adults, depression:
a. often goes undiagnosed and untreated.
b. is considered normal.
c. is indistinguishable from sadness.
d. has symptoms that are unique and distinctive from physical conditions.
80.       Current “death education” suggests:
a. Kübler-Ross was wrong about the stages of dying.
b. people should fight death to the end.
c. people should be supported as they go through the stages of death identified by Kübler-Ross.
d. if people resist the stages proposed by Kübler-Ross they should be “urged” to experience them for their own mental well-being.
81.       Adolescents are in constant state of rebellion against their parents.
a. True
b. False
82.       Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis are:
a. immunological disorders experienced mostly by middle-aged men.
b. medications used to treat colon cancer in women.
c. medications used to treat erectile disorder in men.
d. three researchers who study physical aging during middle adulthood.
83.       Which of the following is true regarding how stress affects people during middle adulthood?
a. all people experience stress the same way                                                                                                                         b. those who believe a stressor is global are less likely to be depressed                                                                        c. those who believe they have control are less likely to be depressed                                                                                                                                 d. those who believe that stressful life events cannot be changed are less likely to be depressed
84.       Which of the following is the definition of a secular trend?
a. the onset of puberty occurring earlier than in past generations                                                                                      b. a historical trend towards increasing adult height and earlier puberty                                                                          c. individuals having a longer life span than those in previous generations                                                                          d. a 3 to 5 point increase in a population’s IQ score over several generations.
85.       Identifying what stresses one out is a good step toward managing one’s stress.
a. True
b. False
86.       Being able to understand both sides of the debate on abortion while maintaining a particular view is an example of relativistic thinking.
a. True
b. False
87.       Life expectancy is:
the same thing as lifespan.
how long a member of a species can live.
the average number of years someone is expected to live.
controlled by genetics alone.
88.       According to Erikson, the key “crisis” of young adulthood is:
a. separating from one’s parents.                                                                                                                                     b. establishment of intimate relationships.                                                                                                                     c. developing a sense of themselves                                                                                                                                d. understanding the sexual nature of one’s relationships with one’s mother
89.       Which of the following is true regarding hospice care?
a. It focuses on palliative rather than curative care.
b. It treats the disease, not the patient.
c. It emphasizes quantity of life, not quality.
d. It recommends shortening one’s life in many cases.
90.       After college graduation, Ricardo has decided to embark on a new phase of his life, following his dream of opening up his own consulting firm. According to Levinson and his colleagues, what is Ricardo following?
a. his heart
b. his parents’ wishes, which he does not realize are theirs rather than his
c. the dream
d. the wrong direction
91.       The leading causes of death in middle adulthood:
a. are suicide, accidents, and homicide.
b. the same as during early adulthood.
c. include cancer, heart disease, and accidents.
d. include heart disease, homicide, and suicide.
92.       Generalized anxiety disorder:
a. is rare in older adults
b. is considered the same thing as depression
c. may result from the perception that one lacks control over one’s life.
d. is a phobic disorder
93.       Much of the difference in mortality rates from cancer during middle adulthood can be attributed to lack of early detection and treatment.
a. True
b. False
94.       According to Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development, generativity is:
a. the ability to create power                                                                                                                                                 b. what is needed during early adulthood                                                                                                                                 c. a negative outcome of middle adulthood                                                                                                                        d. the ability to produce something
95.       Which of the following is true regarding late adulthood, according to Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development?
a. Those who achieved positive responses to earlier crises are more likely to achieve ego integrity during late adulthood.
b. Those who achieved positive responses to earlier crises are less likely to achieve ego integrity during late adulthood.
c. There is no relationship between the responses to earlier crises and achieving ego integrity during late adulthood
d. It is not positive to achieve ego integrity unless one has successfully “overcome” all of the previous developmental crises.
96.       Life expectancy:
a. is related to gender but not race.
b. is related to race but not gender
c. is related to race and gender but not geographic location.
d. is related to race, gender, geographic location, and health-related behavior.
97.       In 1900, _____ people lived past their 65th birthday. Now that number is more like  _____.
a. 1 in 1000; 1 in 100
b. 1 in 100; 1 in 25
c. 1 in 25; 1 in 8
d. 1 in 8; 1 in 5
98.       According to your author death has many different meanings. It is not, however, a(n) ________ matter.
a. biological
b. legal
c. emotional
d. educational
99.       The health of people between 40 and 65 years of age:
a.  is the same around the world.
b. has decreased in the last century.
c. is better than it has ever been for those in developed nations.
d. is best for all people who live in the United States today.
100.     Middle Adulthood:
a. is a time of great responsibility, but few positive aspects.
b. has few stressors.
c. is a time when few people are able to cope well with multiple stressors.
d. has positive and negative aspects.


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